The magnetic compass is the most common device found in the pilot’s cockpit; however, it is also known as the faultiest device. During times of turbulence, the compass can become increasingly difficult to read and be subject to incorrect acceleration and turning errors. Its inaccuracies can make it difficult for the pilot to fly by safely. To come to the rescue of frustrated pilots, the Heading Indicator (HI) is a gyroscopic instrument that maintains alignment with the magnetic compass. This tool makes for more accurate flight paths by eliminating severe acceleration or turning errors.
There are a few mechanical factors, mainly attributed to friction, that may cause the HI to drift off the original alignment with magnetic north. This is referred to as mechanical drift. The rotation of the earth can also affect the HI. If you imagine a line running north in space it will forever be changing because of Earth’s constant rotation. This is referred to as apparent drift.
However, these errors can be fixed with a simple solution. The HI is able to be realigned to the magnetic compass found in all aircrafts when corrections need to be made. The pilot should be sure to check the power source is active and that the correct turns are being indicated on the HI prior to entering air travel. Every HI has a “slaving knob” that enables the pilot to realign the HI, correcting for both the mechanical and apparent drift. This should be made a routine alignment by the pilot every 10-15 minutes.
Here are some tips to manually align the HI with the magnetic compass if these errors occur: First, choose a reference point directly ahead of the plane, aim on that point, and fly steady and straight. Maintain the plane’s heading toward this reference point and adjust the HI to match the magnetic compass readings. Ensure that the plane has remained steady and straight on its heading toward the reference to finish the realigning process.
With the use of these flight instruments in conjunction with one another, pilots should experience a more reliable tool to help them accurately navigate the sky.
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Landing gear is a critical component for any aircraft, as it allows the aircraft to takeoff, land, and taxi safely on the ground. However, the way landing gear is designed and arranged on the aircraft can affect its weight distribution, center of gravity, and handling characteristics on the ground. Most modern civilian small aircraft are built in either the tricycle or tailwheel configurations.
In the tricycle configuration, two main wheels are located on either side of the fuselage, with a third wheel directly underneath the nose. This configuration is identical to the children’s toy, thus giving it the name. Tricycle landing gear has three main advantages: firstly, it allows for more forceful application of the brakes during landings at high speed, gives the pilot better visibility during takeoff, landing, and taxiing, and helps prevent ground looping or swerving while taxiing. This is because the aircraft’s center of gravity is forward of the main wheels, keeping it moving in a straight line rather than wavering.
Tailwheel landing gear also has two wheels on either side of the fuselage attached ahead of the aircraft’s center of gravity, which support most of the aircraft’s weight on the ground. A third wheel is placed in the rear of the fuselage directly under the tail, thus giving the configuration its name. This arrangement means that the plane is slightly tilted back when on the ground and has all three wheels on the ground, which provides greater clearance between the aircraft propeller and the ground. This in turn means that a larger propeller can be installed on the aircraft, and allows it to operate from rougher, unimproved airfields. However, with the center of gravity located behind the main landing gear, directional control of the aircraft is more difficult, as it is more likely to swerve during taxiing. The lack of forward visibility while the tailwheel is on the ground is also a major issue, and one that requires specific training for the pilot to adapt to.
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There are two main approaches to the construction of the outer shell of an aircraft fuselage: monocoque and semimonocoque. Monocoque systems were employed in early aviation, starting in 1918, but semimonocoque methods are the most widely seen approach in modern aviation. The main differences between the two approaches is in their designated support structures.
Monocoque is a French term that means “single shell”. Similar to the concept of the surface of an aluminum can, the fuselage is wrapped in a layer of stressed aluminum alloy. The monocoque system does not have a second support structure behind its outer layer, so it is completely dependent on the construction of the outer layer to distribute stress and load. To add strength to the skin of the fuselage, it is sometimes fortified with stiffeners. This approach becomes very strong, as twisting and bending stresses can be distributed through the external skin. However, this method is not tolerant to any type of surface corrosion or deformation. When stiffeners are added, it increases the weight of the monocoque. As such, monocoque approaches have been widely phased out in favor of semimonocoque structures. Automobiles still use the monocoque approach, and some smaller aircraft, such as helicopters. This is because a one-layer system allows for more space in the interior of an aircraft.
Semimonocoque methods utilize part of monocoque technology, as the name suggests, but add a partial “inner skeleton”. It is essentially a dual layered construction. A semimonocoque fuselage uses a substructure that consists of bulkheads and formers which reinforce an outer skin layer. The second layer of support reinforces the outermost layer by assuming part of the applied load, therefore stress is evenly distributed across the fuselage. Due to the extra layer of support, the fuselage shape is able to stay intact, and has better longevity than a monocoque approach.
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Have you ever wondered how air conditioning works on a commercial aircraft? Air cycle air conditioning is the most widely used process in commercial aviation. This system uses engine bleed air to pressurize the aircraft cabin. By manipulating bleed air through a few important components, this system is able to provide comfortable air flow to the cabin during flight.
Bleed air is too hot to pump directly from the engine system into the cabin. In order for the incoming air to begin the cooling process, it is routed into a primary heat exchanger, which reduces the temperature of the air by ducting controlled ram air through the exchanger. Ram air is provided by the aircraft pneumatic system.
The cooled air is then directed into an air cycle machine (ACM), or refrigeration unit, where it is compressed before flowing to a secondary heat exchange. The secondary exchanger works the same as the primary, and air is mixed with more ram air and cooled further. Meanwhile, excess cool air is fed from the secondary exchanger back to the ACM, where it drives the expansion turbine and cools the unit.
As the temperature of the air changes, air molecules cannot hold as much water as before. A fiberglass water separator is necessary to remove water from the air flow before it enters the cabin. Lastly, air at the proper temperature adjustment is delivered to the cabin through an air distribution system.
It is worth mentioning the following component parts, as they are integral to the air cycle process: a pack valve, bleed air bypass, and refrigeration turbine unit (ACM). A pack valve serves the same function as a supply shut off valve. It regulates pressurized bleed air entering the system and can open or close depending on the needed air flow. This part also operates as a redundancy measure for overheating and will shut off air supply if necessary. A bleed air bypass removes some pneumatic air and mixes it with cold air so that air enters the cabin at a comfortable temperature. The bypass is controlled by an auto temperature controller.
A refrigeration turbine unit, also referred to as an ACM, is the main cooling system. It is essentially a compressor that is driven by a turbine. Air from the primary heat exchanger flows to the compressor area of the unit. The air is then sent to the secondary heat exchanger for a second cooling process. The highly pressurized air allows for an easier exchange of heat energy when mixed with ram air. Excess cooled air is then directed from the secondary heat exchanger to the ACM to cool the turbine.
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Among the various types of aircraft landing gear, all are currently sorted into two main categories: fixed and retractable. Fixed landing gear simply refers to gear that is permanently attached to the airframe. Retractable landing gear refers to a system that allows landing gear to be extended and retracted from the aircraft as needed. The use of both arrangements primarily relies on aircraft speed and internal volume.
If you regularly fly on commercial airlines, you are likely familiar with retractable landing gear to some degree. This configuration is the most commonly used setup on standard commercial aircraft. Large aircraft retraction systems customarily rely on hydraulics for operation. A landing gear parts supplier, and/or a landing gear parts distributor, can expect to encounter conventional hydraulic systems components. These include, but are not limited to priority valves, actuating cylinders, and selector valves. Another vital part in the retractable gear layout is the gear door. Gear door operations and arrangements vary by aircraft. Most arrangements retract the landing gear into the fuselage, if there is space. This is typical in aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and Airbus A340. If space is not available, extra space is built extending from the fuselage.
Though the retractable configuration is the most common among commercial aircraft, fixed landing gear is still in production. It is most frequently seen on relatively small, light-weight, single engine aircraft. On occasion, it is also seen in light-weight twin engine planes. In a fixed arrangement, the landing gear parts are attached to the airframe, which exposes it to the slipstream in flight. This creates what is referred to as parasite drag. This occurs due to the extension of the landing mechanics outside of the airframe. As long as the aircraft is relatively slow, it will benefit more from having a fixed landing gear system. This is due to the fact that retractable landing parts are quite heavy. Induced drag is drag created simply due to the added weight of retractable landing gear parts. Overall, in order for fixed landing gear to be more beneficial to an aircraft, the potential parasite drag must amount to less than the potential induced drag of retractable mechanisms.
Landing gear arrangements have changed drastically over time. Leonardo Da Vinci is believed to be one of the first conceptualize a formal landing gear system for his “flying machines”. Fast forward to the 1920’s, fixed landing gear was positioned, statically, under the fuselage. It was not until 1927, that research found a considerable amount of fuselage drag was contributed by fixed landing gear. Aircraft enthusiasts might also be familiar with the 1930’s Boeing Monomail, which is one of the first planes credited with the initiation of retractable landing gear. Nearing a century after the birth of commercialized retractable landing gear, both fixed and retractable forms are still in use.
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An aircraft actuator is a type of motor that moves mechanisms and systems using hydraulic fluids and currents. They produce linear, rotary, or oscillatory motions. Actuators have applications in many fields and can be used in many kinds of machinery. Many of our common household items, such as printers and disk drives, have actuators. They can even be found in cars! But, because they have so many uses, and each is subject to its own specific conditions, there are considerations to be had when deciding on which actuator to use. The four main types are:
Hydraulic actuators require a cylinder which applies hydraulic power to start the mechanical routine. It takes more time to gain speed and slow down because liquids are incompressible. The hydraulic actuator can also be operated manually, like a hydraulic car jack .
Pneumatic actuators are very similar; however, they use compressed gas instead of liquid. The compressed gas is moved into a linear or circular motion, depending on the type. The pneumatic actuator is used more in main engine controls because it exhibits a quicker start and stop from the source. It is also used in projects where cleanliness is a priority, because unlike the hydraulic actuator the gas will no spew liquids or spill. However, this type of actuator is generally larger and louder.
Electric actuators convert electricity into torque. This actuator is used to create motion for machines that require multiple valves, such as gate or globe valves. Electric actuators are often installed into engines, where the actuators open and close the valves. This is also another relatively clean option because it does not require any fluids.
Mechanical actuators convert the circular motion into linear motion. This type of actuator is commonly used in larger sized machines. Devices like rails and pulleys are used in order to convert the motion.
ASAP Distribution, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, should always be your first and only stop for all your hard-to-find actuator. ASAP Distribution is the premier supplier of hydraulic actuators, pneumatic actuators, electric actuators, mechanical actuators, and more! Whether new or obsolete, we can help you find all the parts you need. ASAP Distribution has a wide selection of parts to choose from and our dedicated staff are available and ready to help 24/7x365. If you’re interested in a quote, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call us at +1-702-919-1616.
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For first-time flyers, there’s nothing more terrifying than the little shudder and deceleration you feel right before the pilot comes on the PA system and announces that they’ve shut down the aircraft engine. Passengers will suddenly remember the headlines they’ve seen over the years: the 2010 Qantas flight 32 which had catastrophic engine failure four minutes after takeoff from Singapore, or the 2009 US Airways Flight 1549 incident where the pilot had to land in the Hudson River after losing both engines to bird strikes, to name a few.
Fortunately, while losing an engine sounds scary, there’s no reason to panic. Engine failure is so rare, when it does happen, it’s immediately turned into sensationalized headlines in every media outlet. Engines may shut down during flight for any number of reasons, ranging from the ingestion of material, like hail or a bird, to a system malfunction. Most of the time, passengers won’t even notice the difference.
Jet airliners are always equipped with at least two incredibly powerful engines. In the US, it’s mandated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that jet airliners be able to safely operate with only one engine, even through takeoff. Of course, with one engine down, the airliner’s range is significantly reduced and will usually divert to the nearest airport, but it can still fly. In fact, even with total engine failure, it’s not likely that the plane will just drop out of the sky.
In the case of total engine failure, the movement of air over and under the aerospace wings is enough to allow the airplane to glide. And that’s exactly what happened with US Airways Flight 1549. That’s also what happened in the 2001 Air Transat Flight 236, when the airplane lost all engines due to improper maintenance; they still managed to travel nearly 20 minutes without power and land safely without casualties in the Azores.
Flying can be scary, but it shouldn’t be. It’s a common and popular form of travel because it’s so safe that it’s statistically got a lower risk than driving a car does. But, at ASAP Distribution, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we know it’s important to have peace of mind. So, as a premier aviation and aerospace parts distributor, we make sure to always stock the highest quality parts, new and obsolete for all your mission-critical and AOG requirements. Visit us at www.asap-distribution for a quick quote.
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As you wait in the airport terminal for your turn to board, you’ve probably looked out those large windows, watching the planes and air traffic personnel as they go about their routines. You’ve probably noticed that no matter what direction the flight is supposed to go, it seems like all the planes are taking off in the same direction. But have you wondered why?
To understand why planes takeoff and land in a certain direction, we must first understand the basics of flight. If you draw a basic free-body diagram of a plane in flight, you’d draw four vectors: thrust, drag, lift, and weight. Thrust is the forward force generated by the aircraft engines and accelerates the plane forward. Drag is the backwards force of air that slows the plane. Lift is the upward force generated when air passes over and under the wings at a high rate. And weight is the gravitational force pulling the plane down. Planes can only fly when thrust is greater than drag and lift and weight are equal.
Once the plane reaches significant speeds and gets enough airflow over and under the aircraft wings, the pilot pulls back on the controls, and the plane takes off. While the plane can takeoff in the same direction as the wind, pilots normally takeoff in the opposite direction and redirect when they’re airborne. Going in the opposite direction of the windflow helps the aircraft get additional lift, which allows the takeoff distance to get shorter and faster, which saves on fuel.
Landing also benefits from opposing windflow. Windflow in the opposite direction of the plane adds to the drag force. This allows the plane to have a lower approach speed, which means braking is easier. Windflow in the same direction of the plane adds to the thrust, meaning that the plane has to approach the runway at a higher speed, which requires a longer runway to allow for safer braking. Not all airports have that luxury. So, when they can, air traffic control and pilots will always coordinate to change the direction of landing and takeoff in order to go opposite the windflow.
ASAP Distribution, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, should always be your first and only choice for your new, obsolete, or hard-to-find aircraft and aviation parts. From landing gear to hardware parts, we have it all. So, the next time you’re in the market for new landing gear, check us out at www.asap-distribution.com.
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Starting a jet engine is a complicated process that takes some vital actions to complete. The main and most important part is to make sure that the engine has sufficient airflow, this is so that the engine can compress the air to successfully cause the chemical reaction with fuel to provide thrust.
Jet engines have several sizes, the auxiliary power unit is a smaller sized engine that generate very high thirst power and functions independently from the other engines. They are usually used in support of larger engines and take fuel from the same tank as the larger main engines. However, since the auxiliary power units are smaller in size, they usually start with a battery and not with fuel. These smaller jet engines take electrical power from either a battery or external power unit generating enough power to turn the engine blades to start the engine and provide thrust to move jet aircraft.
The jet fuel starter is generating energy through fuel but functions directly with the engine to help start it and jump start the process of starting the jet engine. Now that the jet starter provided the energy to start the engine, we can use the method of Cross-Bleed Start which uses the air from another already started engine to generate enough airflow to start itself. However, all of these ways to start a jet engine take precious resources and cause wear and tear on the plane, in this case to avoid this you can start an aircraft jet engine by Air Start Unit. This vehicle is separate from the aircraft itself is a unit that starts the engine and provides alternative options that the aircraft itself.
With the awesome ability of jet engines, and the many ways to start them, they provide flexibility on how you want to start up your jet powered aircraft. For all of your aircraft distribution needs, ASAP Distribution provides the easiest and most efficient way for you to get the aircraft parts you need, ASAP is the primer supplier of aviation parts around the world and with our streamlined website you can get the parts you need and be confident you have the most advanced, efficient, and modern way to fly for a exceptional price.
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As fuel prices continue to lower companies across the globe are seeing airlines, as well as private owners, sinking their money into taking care of their planes and using them for long stretches of time. This shift means that facilities who repair and maintain aircraft engines are seeing companies ask for older models for their aging planes. This change means that companies are scrambling to find older engine models, meaning that the market has quickly gone from being flooded with aviation parts to almost completely barren.
When you investigate why this change may be, you start to notice the influx of money that many companies are experiencing right now. Organizations that used to be floundering are now making back the money they sink into their planes because fuel prices have started to regulate themselves. It is now not uncommon to find fuel for less than $100 dollars a barrel, something that used to be a pipe dream. This change in fuel prices allows people to hold onto aircraft for longer, resulting in MRO facilities, being bombarded with work orders for older engine models. Something that can help almost everyone, across the board.
Even though the market is no longer saturated with products, MRO’s and Engine Dealers, are finding new life in outdated and unwanted parts. Many aerospace companies have stated that they can easily strip older, unpopular engine models to sell off for parts that can be used on planes and engines that are currently having a moment on the market.
What we don’t know though, is how long this surge will last? Even if this trend dies down in the next month or so we can still look back and see the impact one small change, fuel prices, in the market can make on the entirety of the aircraft industry.
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